Shanmuga Hospital presents

Cancer Awareness Photo Contest 2024

Bonding through Photography

Cancer Awareness Photo Contest 2024

World Cancer Day is an international day marked on February 4 to raise awareness of cancer and to encourage its prevention, detection, and treatment. World Cancer Day was founded by the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC) to support the goals of the World Cancer Declaration, written in 2008. The primary goal of the World Cancer Day is to significantly reduce illness and death caused by cancer.

The second most common cause of mortality worldwide is cancer.

  • Cancer claims the lives of 1 crore individuals each year.
  • Given that cancer-related deaths are associated with modifiable risk factors like smoking, alcohol use, poor diet, and physical inactivity, more than 40% of cancer-related deaths may be avoidable.
  • Early detection, treatment, and routine screening could prevent as least one-third of all cancer-related fatalities.
  • Low-to-middle income nations account for 70% of cancer-related fatalities.
  • Resource-appropriate solutions for prevention, early identification, and treatment could save millions of lives per year.
  • It is estimated that cancer costs the global economy 100 lakh crores annually.

Cancer is a sickness which happens when changes in a gathering of typical cells inside the body lead to uncontrolled, unusual development framing a bump called a cancer; this is valid for all diseases with the exception of leukemia (Cancer of the blood). Whenever left untreated, growths can develop and spread into the encompassing typical tissue, or to different pieces of the body through the circulation system and lymphatic frameworks, and can influence the stomach related, apprehensive and circulatory frameworks or delivery chemicals that might influence body capability.

Cancer growth can be characterized by the sort of cell they start from. There are five primary sorts:

Carcinoma – A disease that emerges from the epithelial cells (the covering of cells that secures or encase organs). Carcinomas might attack the encompassing tissues and organs and metastasise to the lymph hubs and different region of the body. The most well-known types of Cancer growth in this gathering are bosom, prostate, lung and colon disease

Sarcoma – A kind of harmful growth of the bone or delicate tissue (fat, muscle, veins, nerves and other connective tissues that help and encompass organs). The most well-known types of sarcoma are leiomyosarcoma, liposarcoma and osteosarcoma

Lymphoma and Myeloma – Lymphoma and Myeloma are Cancer that start in the cells of the resistant framework. Lymphoma is a Cancer growth of the lymphatic framework, which runs generally through the body, and can subsequently happen anyplace. Myeloma (or numerous myeloma) begins in the plasma cells, a kind of white platelet that produces antibodies to assist with battling contamination. This Cancer growth can influence the cell’s capacity to really create antibodies

Leukemia – Leukemia is a Cancer growth of the white platelets and bone marrow, the tissue that structures platelets. There are a few subtypes; normal are lymphocytic leukemia and persistent lymphocytic leukemia

Cerebrum and spinal string Cancer – these are known as focal sensory system diseases. Some are harmless while others can develop and spread.

Cancer tumours can be divided into three groups: benign,  malignant or precancerous

Benign tumours are not Cancer and seldom compromise life. They will generally develop gradually, don’t spread to different pieces of the body and are typically comprised of cells very like typical or solid cells. They will possibly objective an issue in the event that they become extremely huge, becoming awkward or push on different organs – for instance a mind growth inside the skull.

Malignant tumours  are more quickly developing than harmless cancers and can spread and annihilate adjoining tissue. Cells of threatening growths can sever from the fundamental (essential) cancer and spread to different pieces of the body through a cycle known as metastasis. After attacking solid tissue at the new site they proceed to partition and develop. These auxiliary locales are known as metastases and the condition is alluded to as metastatic disease.

Precancerous (or premalignant) depicts the condition including strange cells which may (or is probably going to) form into Cancer growth.

Tumours can be brought about by various variables and, likewise with numerous different diseases, most Cancer are the consequence of openness to various different causal elements. It is critical to recall that, while certain elements can’t be adjusted, around 33% of Cancer growth cases can be forestalled by lessening social and dietary dangers.

Modifiable gamble factors include:

It is essential to take note of that pay and training levels, public strategies, industry strategies with vested business interests, and hereditary qualities, are factors that can make it undeniably challenging to follow up on a modifiable variable and change conduct at the singular level.

Liquor – The proof that a wide range of cocktails are a reason for various tumours is currently more grounded than at any other time. Liquor can build the gamble of six sorts of tumours, including gut (colorectal), bosom, mouth, pharynx and larynx (mouth and throat), oesophageal, liver and stomach.The proof recommends that as a general rule, the most liquor drinks individuals polish off the higher the gamble of numerous diseases, and that even safe liquor consumption expands the gamble of Cancer growth.

Being overweight or fat – Abundance weight has been connected to an expanded gamble of creating 12 unique Cancer, including bowl and pancreatic tumours. As a rule, more prominent weight gain, especially as grown-ups, is related with more prominent Cancer growth gambles. By and large, more prominent weight gain, especially as grown-ups, is related with more noteworthy Cancer growth chances.

Diet and nourishment – Specialists recommend that weight control plans and wholesome admission, especially counts calories high in red meats, handled meats, salted food sources and low in products of the soil affect disease gambles, especially colorectum, nasopharynx and stomach1, 2, 3.

Actual work – Ordinary active work not just assists with lessening abundance muscle to fat ratio and the Cancer growth chances related with this, however being genuinely dynamic can assist with decreasing the dangers of creating colon, bosom and endometrial tumours.

Tobacco – Tobacco smoke contains somewhere around 80 different Cancer growth causing substances (cancer-causing specialists). At the point when smoke is breathed in the synthetic compounds enter the lungs, pass into the circulation system and are shipped all through the body. For this reason smoking or biting tobacco causes lung and mouth tumors as well as connected with numerous different diseases. The more an individual smokes, the more youthful they start, and the more they continue to smoke, all further increment the gamble of Cancer growth. Right now tobacco use is liable for around 22% of Cancer growth passing’s.

Ionizing radiation – Synthetic wellsprings of radiation can cause Cancer growth and are a gamble for labourers. These incorporate radon, x-beams, gamma beams and different types of high-energy radiation. Drawn out and unprotected openness to bright radiations from the sun, sunlamps and tanning beds can likewise prompt melanoma and skin malignancies. Lighter looking individuals, people with a ton of moles or who have a family background of melanoma or non-melanoma skin disease, are at most elevated risk. Be that as it may, individuals of all complexions can foster skin disease, incorporating people with more obscure skin.

Work place dangers – Certain individuals risk being presented to a Cancer growth causing substance in view of the work that they do. For instance, labourers in the synthetic colour industry have been found to have a higher occurrence than ordinary of bladder disease. Asbestos is a notable work environment reason for Cancer growth – especially a disease called mesothelioma, which most regularly influences the covering of the lungs.

Disease – Irresistible specialists are liable for around 2.2 million Cancer growth passing’s every year. This doesn’t imply that these Cancer can be gotten like a disease; rather the infection can cause changes in cells that make them bound to become destructive. Around 70% of cervical Cancer is brought about by Human papillomavirus (HPV) diseases, while liver Cancer growth and Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma can be brought about by the Hepatitis B and C infection, and lymphomas are connected to the Epstein-Barr infection. Bacterial contaminations have not been considered Cancer growth causing specialists previously, however later examinations have shown that individuals who have helicobacter pylori disease of their stomach foster aggravation of the stomach lining, which expands the gamble of stomach disease.

Non-modifiable gamble factors include:

Age – Many sorts of Cancer growth become more common with age. The more drawn out individuals live, the more openness there is to cancer-causing agents and the additional time there is for hereditary changes or transformations to happen inside their cells.

Cancer growth causing substances (cancer-causing agents) – are substances which change how a cell acts, expanding the possibilities creating disease. Qualities are the coded messages inside a cell that tell it how to act (for example which proteins to make), transformations or changes to the quality, like harm or misfortune, can adjust how that cell acts making it bound to be destructive.

Hereditary qualities – Certain individuals are sadly brought into the world with a hereditarily acquired high gamble for a particular disease (‘hereditary inclination). This doesn’t mean creating Cancer growth is ensured, however a hereditary inclination makes the sickness more probable.

For instance, ladies that convey the BRCA 1 and BRCA 2 bosom disease qualities have a higher inclination to fostering this type of Cancer growth than ladies with a typical bosom disease risk. Nonetheless, less than 5% of all bosom Cancer growth is known to be because of qualities. Thus, despite the fact that ladies with one of these qualities are exclusively bound to foster bosom disease, most cases are not brought about by a high gamble acquired quality shortcoming. This is valid for other normal Cancer where certain individuals have a hereditary inclination – for instance, colon (huge inside) disease.

The resistant framework – Individuals who have debilitated invulnerable frameworks are more in danger of fostering a few sorts of Cancer growth. This incorporates individuals who have had organ transfers and ingest medications to stifle their safe frameworks to stop organ dismissal, in addition to individuals who have HIV or Helps, or other ailments which diminish their resistance to illness.

With such countless various kinds of Cancer, the side effects are differed and rely upon where the infection is found. Be that as it may, there are a few critical signs and side effects to pay special attention to, including:

Unusual lumps or swelling  – harmful irregularities are frequently easy and may increment in size as the Cancer growth advances

Coughing, breathlessness or difficulty swallowing – know about tenacious hacking episodes, windedness or trouble gulping

Changes in bowel habit– like obstruction and looseness of the bowels and additionally blood tracked down in the stools

Unexpected bleeding – incorporates draining from the vagina, butt-centric entry, or blood tracked down in stools, in pee or while hacking

Unexplained weight reduction – a lot of unexplained and inadvertent weight reduction over a brief timeframe (two or three months)

Fatigue – which shows itself as outrageous sleepiness and an extreme absence of energy? Assuming that exhaustion is because of disease, people ordinarily additionally have different side effects

Pain or ache – incorporates unexplained or continuous torment, or torment that goes back and forth

New mole or changes to a mole – search for changes in size, shape, or variety and in the event that it becomes hard or drains or overflows

Entanglements with peeing – incorporates expecting to pee direly, all the more regularly, or being not able to go as needs be or encountering torment while peeing

Unusual breast changes  – search for changes in size, shape or feel, skin changes and agony

Appetite loss  – feeling less eager than expected for a delayed timeframe

A sore or ulcer that will not recuperate – including a spot, sore injury or mouth ulcer

Heartburn or indigestion  – determined or excruciating acid reflux or heartburn

Weighty night sweats – know about exceptionally weighty, soaking night sweats

Over 33% of all diseases can be forestalled by diminishing your openness to gamble with elements like tobacco, weight, actual inertia, contaminations, liquor, ecological contamination; word related cancer-causing agents and radiation.

Anticipation of specific diseases may likewise be successful through immunization against the Hepatitis B Infection (HBV) and the Human Papilloma Infection (HPV), assisting with safeguarding against liver Cancer growth and cervical disease separately.

Diminishing openings to different cancer-causing agents, for example, ecological contamination, word related cancer-causing agents and radiation could assist with forestalling further tumours.

There are various Cancer which can be recognized early which assists with working on the possibilities of fruitful treatment results, frequently at lower costs and with less (or less critical) secondary effects for patients. There are savvy tests that help distinguish colorectal, bosom, cervical and oral Cancer early and further tests are being created for different diseases.

Check with your primary care physician for direction on the public suggestions in regards to immunizations, testing and screenings. These can and do differ from one country to another.

The grouping of Cancer growth by physical degree of the sickness, for example stage, is crucial for patient consideration, exploration and disease control. The UICC TNM organizing framework is the normal language embraced by oncology wellbeing experts to impart on the disease degree for individual patients. When the phase of disease is known and perceived, this is in many cases a reason for choosing suitable treatment and individual guess. It can likewise be utilized to illuminate and assess therapy rules, and is crucial data for strategy creators creating or executing disease control, anticipation plans and examination.

The TNM arrangement centres around the physical degree of the growth not set in stone by surveying the accompanying classifications:

  • T portrays the size of the fundamental (essential) cancer
  • N depicts whether the Cancer growth has spread to the close by lymph hubs
  • M portrays whether the disease has metastasised (spread from the essential growth to one more piece of the body)

Your treatments relies upon the sort of disease, where your Cancer growth is, the manner by which large it is, whether it has spread, and your overall wellbeing. The general sorts of medicines include: medical procedure, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, chemical treatment, immunotherapy, and quality treatment.


On the off chance that a Cancer growth has not metastasised (spread), medical procedure can eliminate the whole disease which may totally fix the infection. Frequently, this is viable in eliminating the prostate or a bosom or gonad.


Radiation therapy or radiotherapy utilizes high-energy beams to diminish a growth or obliterate disease cells as an independent therapy and at times in blend with other Cancer growth therapies.


Chemotherapy utilizes synthetic substances to slow down the manner in which cells partition – harming of DNA – with the goal that Cancer growth cells will annihilate themselves. These therapies focus on any quickly isolating cells (not really Cancer growth cells), but rather ordinary cells normally can recuperate from any synthetic incited harm while disease cells can’t. Chemotherapy is for the most part used to treat disease that has spread or metastasised on the grounds that the meds travel all through the whole body. It is a vital treatment for certain types of leukemia and lymphoma.


Immunotherapy utilizes the body’s own invulnerable framework to battle the Cancer growth cancer. Immunotherapy might treat the entire body by giving a specialist that can recoil growths.

Chemical treatment

A few tumours have been connected to certain kinds of chemicals, including bosom and prostate disease. Chemical treatment attempts to change chemical creation in the body with the goal that Cancer growth cells quit developing or are killed totally.

Quality treatment

The objective of quality treatment is to supplant harmed qualities with ones that work to address a main driver of Cancer growth: harm to DNA. Other quality put together treatments centre with respect to additional harming Cancer growth cell DNA to the place where the cell annihilates them. Nonetheless, quality treatment is new and has not yet brought about any effective medicines.